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No. 64 July, 1962 



*-**? 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 
(Formerly Fish and Wildlife Management Report) 




ONTARIO 



Fish and Wildlife Branch 

(These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

Hon. J. W. Spooner. F. A. MacDoogoll 

Minister Deputy Minister 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 64 July, 1962 

Page 
The Pelee Island Pheasant Shoot, 1961 Statistics 
and Comments. - by L, J« Stock 1 

Experiment to Determine Effectiveness of Bird 

Scaring Device* - by J. A. Toll 6 

Pheasant Hunt Report, Lindsay District, I96I0 

- by E. T. Cox 11 

Reports on the Algonquin National Park of 
Ontario for the year 1893 - 

- Mr. James Wilson's Report 19 

Electric Water Thermometer, - by B. V. Kerr 30 

Some Observations on the Quality of Angling in 
Lake Mindemoya, Manitoulin Island, 1961. 

- by F A. Z mmerman 35 

Winter Creel Census Perry Lake, Swastika District. 

- by V. B. Collins 43 

Some Observations on Fish Behaviour and the 
Environmental Relationships of Fish in Selected 
Sudbury District Lakes by the Use of Self-contained 
Underwater Breathing Apparatus. 

- by D. R. Hughson and J. M. Sheppard 43 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



- 1 - 

THE PELEE ISLAND PHEASANT SHOOT, 1961 
STATISTICS AND COMMENTS 

by 
L Q Jc Stock 
Biologist 

Abstract 

Seven hundred and fifty hunters bagged a total of 
6,75$ pheasants - an average of 9*01 birds per hunter. 
The reported crippling loss was 23 »4 per cent of the 
bag. The crippling loss for the past four years is 
included., The post season population is estimated at 
2,179 cocks and 11, 2+9S hens (sex ratio C:H = 1:5.3), 
Weather for the hunt was good and the hunters were 
well pleased. Complete Statistics of the shoot are 
presented. 



Statistics B ased on Hunter Questionnaires 

Season - October 25th and 26th. 

Bag Limit - 8 Cocks, 2 Hens. 

Number of licences sold Non Resident 613 

Resident 137 
TOTAL (maximum) 750 

Number of questionnaires returned 

by hunters {l8ol%) 135 

Hunter Success 



Birds bagged 



Total Cocks 5,295 

Total Hens 1,463 6753 



Cocks per hunter 7*06 

Hens per hunter 1.95 

TOTAL per hunter 9.01 

Birds per hunter hou 10 1st. cay 1.10 

2nd, day 0.33 

Average both days 0.86 

Number of hunters with limit (both days) 60$ 

Nrmber of hunters with no birds 0% 

Number hunting 1st day only 62 8.2$ 

both days 688 91.$$ 



- 2 - 



Hours per hunter in the field 



1st day 7.0 
2nd day 3-9 
TOTAL BOTH DAYS 10.5 



Hours hunting to bag a bird 

1st day .91 
2nd day 2.66 
Average both days 1.17 

Crippling Loss 

Birds hit and not retrieved (reported) 15$1 

(23.4$ of bag) 

Birds seen dead and not picked up (reported) 689 
(10.2% of bag) 

Total Kill (reported) (1st estimate) 

Bag 6758 

Cripples lost 1581 
Total Kill (cocks and hens) 3339 

(No allowance for illegal kill out of season. Total kill assumes 
that birds seen and not picked up are included in the figure for 
birds hit and not retrieved) . 

Total Kill (by sexes) (2nd estimate) 

Cocks bag 5295 

Crippling loss 1239 

23.4% of bag) 

Total 6534 

Hens bag 1^63 

Loss and illegal 

kill (estimate) 2926 

Total 4389 

Grand Total (estimate) 10,923 



- 3 - 



Crippling Loss Data Compared for Four Years 
1958, 1959, I960 and 196I 
As reported on questionnaires 
All Hunters - Both Days 



Hit and not 
retrieved 

Seen dead and 
not picked up 

Total Bag 

Bag Limit 



1958 



1959 



I960 



1961 



No. of 
Birds 


% of 

Bag 


No, of 
Birds 


% of 

Bag 


No. of 
Birds 


% of 
Bag 


No. of 
Birds 


% of 

Bag 


2580 


23 


2003 


24 


1605 


27.7 


1581 


23o4 


1553 


14 


1607 


19 


2426 


42.0 


689 


10.2 


11227 




£350 




5794 




6758 




9C 
2H 




8c 

2H 




IOC 
OH 




8C 
2H 





Post Shoot Population Estimate 



Pre-shoot population estimate Cocks Hens 
(July survey) 7963 15137 

(Presented to the Pelee Council in round figures of Cocks-8,000 and 

Hens - 15.000) 

Less total kill 6534 4389 

Post shoot native population est imate 

1429 



Imports (November 16 - 18) 750 
Total Post shoot population 2179 



10748 
750 
11498 



Sex ratio C/H 



1 
5.3 



The hunt can only be described as a success. Birds were 
plentiful and the average bag was near the allowed limit of ten 
birds. 

Comments 
f 

The total number of huntsrs in 1961 was reduced from 
1020 (I960) to 750, a decrease of 26%. The total resident hunters 
in the field may have been less than 137 so this is considered a 

maximum c 



- &•**■ . 

The number of cocks bagged (5,295) was 499 (6.6) less than 
in I960. The addition of hens in the bag and the reduction in the 
number of hunters resulted in a high total bag per hunter and contri- 
buted greatly to the success of the shoot. 

A good indication of the success of the hunt is the number 
who bagged their quota of birds, 60% in 1961, 13% in I960. 

The unusually high average bag per hunter (9*01 birds) 
is also an indication of a successful hunt and an abundance of birds. 
The shooting of hens in 1961 was a contributing factor, no hens were 
allowed in I960. 

Crippling Loss 

Crippling loss as reported by hun J :^rs has varied little 
(between 23.0% and 27.7%) during the past four years. 

The number seen dead and not picked up during the same 
period varied between 10.2% and 19% of the bag except for I960 
when it increased to 42. <" 



When hens were not allowed in the bag, (I960) the reported 
crippling loss and the number of birds seen dead and left in the field, 
particularly the latter increased much above the average (42% of the 
bag) . Excluding the hens from the legal bag is, of course, one rea- 
son for leaving birds in the field. Another reason may have been the 
attitude of the hunters. They may have been frustrated when cocks 
were difficult to flush and bag and tended to shoot hens which were 
always plentiful. 

Total Kill 

This estimated first by adding to the bag the reported 
crippling loss and second by adding to the bag the crippling loss of 
the cocks and double the bag of hens. An estimate of the hen kill at 
double the number bagged seems to be satisfactory and more nearly 
correct than the reported crippling loss. 

Post Season - Population Estimate 

The estimated population after the shoot of 2,179 cocks 
and 11,49^ hens (when the November releases are included) results 
in sex ratio of approximately 1 cock to 5<-3 hens. 

The letter (included in this summary) from the Pelee 
Council to the hunters is of interest in that it published the pre- 
shoot population estimate resulting from the July survey carried 
out by Department personnel. 

The work of Senior Conservation Officer K. J. Juck and 
Conservation Officer Bruce Howell who supervised the shoot and 
collected the material which made this report possible is appreciated. 

Reference: 

For additional data see - "Pelee Island Pheasant Shoot 1961" 
by K. J. Juck, Unpubl. Report. 



- o - 
TOWNSHIP OF PELEE 



Office of the Clerk-Treasurer, Pelee Island, Onto, 

Harold V D, Beard, Cierk-Treas. August 7, 1961. 

Dear Sir; 




only 13$ 

obtained the full bag of ten cocks, The total bag taken was 5,794 
cock birds . It is interesting to note that in the 3'ear 1956 the 
average bag of cocks. 5-68, was exactly the sane as in I960. 

The Council has considered many suggestions to provide a 
greater number of birds to permit more successful shoots similar to 
those held a number of years ago. Last fall some 1,500 pheasants 
(65% hens) were imported and this spring a further 500 cocks were 
imported 

Farmers have been contacted and corn acreages planted in 
several parts of the Island to provide feed and cover for the birds. 
Other plans are under consideration to increase the cover for nesting, 
and protection of pheasants from predators. 

A recent survey of the pheasant population reveals a total 
of 8,000 cocks and 15,000 hens estimated to be available for this 
year's shoot J It is very important that the bag limit and the number 
cf hunters allowed to participate in the Shoot be fixed in accord- 
ance with che number of birds available and this year the Council 
feel that a safe bag limit would be 8 cocks and 2 hens, making a 
total of 10 birds . Also that only 600 non-resident hunters be 
allowed to participate in the Shoot. This should ensure that all 
hunters will be enabled to obtain a fair bag and make for a success- 
full Snoot , 

The dates of the Shoot are October 25th and 26th. The 
first 600 applications to be r I 1 accepted. 

Yours sincerely, 

Harold V.D Beard. 



- 6 - 

EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE EFFECTIVENESS 
OF BIRD SCARING DEVICE 

by 
J. A. Toll 
Conservation Officer 
Lake Erie District 

Abstract 

During the past several years birds have become an 
increasingly serious problem in the farmlands of south- 
western Ontario, particularly near large marsh and 
swamp areas. The bird which causes the most damage 
is the redwinged blackbird ( Agelaius phoeniceus ) and 
its habit is to spend the night in the shelter of 
the marsh and to feed in nearby farm fields during 
the day. The crop most seriously affected is corn, 
and it is not uncommon for a large flock of the birds, 
numbering in some cases in the thousands, to settle 
into a crop and to peck the young kernels of corn as 
they form on the ears, until half of the crop is 
destroyed. For some time farmers have used various 
types of scaring devices, designed to make an explo- 
sion similar to a shotgun blast at periodic intervals, 
in an attempt to scare birds out of the crops. 
Although several of these machines have been in use 
in some areas, little information is available telling 
how effective they are, or what area of crop they 
might be expected to protect. During the past summer (1961) 
an automatic firing machine was supplied by the Ontario 
Agricultural College at Guelph and was operated by 
Department of Lands and Forests personnel. This 
paper describes the experiment and concludes that 
this type of machine gives good protection to a field 
crop of several acres in size and some protection to 
all crops within a quarter mile radius. 



Method 

The area selected was the farm of Mr. C. Richardson, Lot 1, 
River Road, South Cayuga Township, Haldimand County. As shown on the 
map, this farm is near a large area of marsh, along the Grand River. 
Bird damage in this area has been so severe in the past that many of 
the neighbouring farmers have given up growing corn. The several fields 
of corn grown by Mr. Richardson in various areas on his farm provided 
an ideal test plot and several control plots to check. 

The machine used was an automatic firing device, which 
produced acetylene gas by water dripping on calcium carbide. This 
gas was collected and fired at regular intervals to produce an 
explosion. The noise could be described as being somewhat louder 
than a shotgun blast, but sounding much the same. This machine was 
set up in the field near the centre of the farm (shown as field "A" 
on map) „ The crops were watched closely for bird damage and the 



- 7 - 

machine was not started until August 26th. On that date the birds 
were starting to eat corn in the more advanced fields. It might be 
explained here that the birds attack the corn only after it reaches 
a certain stage, described as the milk stage. During the first weeks 
of operation the machine was timed to fire every four minutes, and on 
September 20th as the birds became thicker and damage was increasing 
in test fields, the timing was set up to fire every two minutes. 
Checks were made on the test field and the control plots during the 
season and just before the corn was harvested (for silage) a count was 
made in each field. In each case, figures were taken to show the 
number of ears which were damaged by the birds in relation to the 
total crop, then the damaged ears were examined to determine the am- 
ount of damage on each ear. Crops on other farms in the area were 
also checked to learn if the machine might be of benefit to them also. 

Observations 

The figures obtained have been compiled and are embodied in 
Table No. 1. There are, however, several comments which should 
accompany this table as explanation. For example, it will be noted 
that in most cases the amount of damage is in direct relation to 
the distance from the machine. This does not hold true in fields 
"D" and "E" where we find that field "D", though closer to the 
machine has some 10$ more total damage than field »»E". In looking for 
a reason for this, I noted that field !? D" was a very poor crop, thin, 
weedy and generally in poor condition. Field "E ?v though just across 
a fence, was good corn; likely a 100 bushel per acre crop. It was 
clean, thick and in good condition. I doubt if the cleanness of the 
crop, or its general condition is the complete answer but suspect 
that the better corn matured faster and that the ears were just past 
the major stage of susceptibility to bird damage by the time the 
birds were thickest. 

As stated before, the machine was started on August 26th. 
On that date the birds were just starting to work in the more 
advanced fields.. On August 30th it was found that there was no 
damage in the test field and that damage was less than 1% in any of 
the other fields. I believe that at that time the machine was effec- 
tive in keeping the few birds that were starting to gather, out of all 
the fields. On September 5th, I checked several fields of corn owned 
by Mr. Max Ricker on Lot 8, Concession 2, Canboro Township, some 
six miles away from Mr. Richardson 9 s and from the river marshes. 
The birds had moved into his fields during the last few days of 
August and by September 1st, he estimated he had lost one-third of his 
crop of 15 acres, an approximate value of $700.00. I found that over 
90% of the ears in his field were damaged and that about one-third of 
each ear was destroyed. By September 5th, Mr. Ricker had purchased 
two machines and had rented two at a cost of . 50<£ per day each, and 
suffered no more bird damage after starting the machines. 

On September 11th, the Richardson fields were checked again. 
By that date, fields on the marsh area shown as "F" on the map, had 
suffered one-third damage, while the other fields still showed almost 
no damage. On the previous day, Richardson had let the machine run 
until noon in the test field "A", then had moved it to the marsh field 
"F" for the afternoon. During that afternoon, there were no birds in 



- 3 - 

either field, but by next morning they had moved into the test field 
"A ?? in large flocks so the machine was put back. It might also be 
noted that many oat crops were not harvested until late, due to bad 
weather, and that a neighbour 200 rods east of the machine stated 
that birds were working in his oat fields, until the machine started, 
but that none stayed after it began to work. 

On September 29th, most of Richardson 9 s corn was harvested 
by forage harvester and just prior to that, final counts were taken 
as shown in Table No. 1. The machine was stopped on September 29th. 

Cost of Operation 

The machine was operated for a total of 35 days during the 
season and used approximately 3 5 lbs. of calcium carbide. This mater- 
ial was purchased locally at a cost of .17$ per lb. so it may be 
concluded that cost of operation of the machine was approximately 
,170 per day. This will vary slightly with the interval of firing and 
with the cost of the carbide in different areas. Several makes of 
this type of machine are on the market and the usual cost is between 
$60.00 and $75.00. Mr. Richardson feels that the saving on the test 
field alone would more than pay for the machine and operation in one 
year, and he plans to have one or two of the machines himself next 
year. 

Conclusions 

It may be concluded that this type of machine will give 
good protection to a crop in a field several acres in size and will 
give some protection to all crops within a quarter mile radius. 
Observations made throughout the area indicate that the machines 
should be operated during all the daylight hours and that placing 
the machine on a stand or on the roof of a small building increases 
the effectiveness by lessening the deadening effect of the corn. The 
bird concentrations seem to build up gradually as the season pro- 
gresses so that just before the corn is harvested, there is a maxi- 
mum number and the machines seem to have less effect. By this time, 
the corn is usually past the most susceptible stage. 

In conversations with farmers throughout the area, I have 
often heard the opinion expressed that as more of the machines come 
into use and a greater number of fields have machines in them, the 
birds will become used to them and they will cease to be effective, 
I believe this may be partly true, as I noted that toward the last 
of the season there were several birds resting in the test field dur- 
ing the day, although damage was kept to a minimum because of the 
advanced stage of the crop. 

It is evident that other factors besides distance from the 
machine should be considered. Distance from buildings, from woodlots 
and other cover, and from the marsh areas should also be considered, 
as well as condition and stage of development of the crop. An early 
maturing variety may suffer less damage than one which is in the milk 
stage at the height of the bird season. 

Other species of birds were present the fields but did 

not seem to react to the machine as the blackbirds did. None of 

these species were found doing damage to the corn, and the redwing 
seems to remain the number one culprit. 



- 9 - 

During one check a deer was found to be resting in the test 
field, apparently not bothered by the machine. 

Suggestions 

It is suggested that this experiment might be continued 
in the spring when other species, particularly the common grackle 
( Quiscalus quiscula ) do considerable damage by pulling up newly 
planted corn. One of the fields used as a control in this test 
had to be replanted this last spring because of these birds. 

It is also suggested that as the scarer may prove to be 
only a temporary or stop-gap control and as the bird problems seem 
to be increasing yearly, work should continue to learn other methods 
of control. 



Table I: 



Field 


A. 


B. 


C. 


D. 


E. 


F. 


Distance from 
scaring device. 


Machine in 
this field 


m 

rods 


30 
rods 


40 
rods 


50 
rods 


100 
rods 


Acres in field. 


6 ac. 


6 ac. 


10 ac. 


5 ac. 


5 ac. 


4 ac. 


Per cent of total 
ears pecked by birds. 


16 % 


54 % 


58 % 


87 % 


35 % 


95 % 


Per cent of kernels 
lost on ears pecked 
by birds 


5 % 


7 % 


10 % 


11% 


10 % 


60 % 


Approx, total % 
loss of crop by 
bird damage. 


0.8 % 


3.8 % 


5.$ % 


14.8$ 


3.5 % 


57 % 



- 10 - 



North 




Dunn, So Cayu 
Townline 



Scale, 20 chains to 1 inch, 



Map shows position of farm in relation to Grand River and 
marsh areas along river. 

Also position of various test fields referred to 
in tables and report. 



- 11 - 

PHEASANT HUNT REPORT, LINDSAY DISTRICT, 1961 

by 

E. T. Cox, Biologist 



Abstract 

This report applies only to the regulated Townships of 
Clarke and Darlington in Durham County. Hunting 
statistics for the 1961 pheasant season, October 7-2&, 
are based upon a survey in which a letter and data 
card were mailed to addresses obtained from the licence- 
book backs. The statistics presented on distribution, 
licence sales, hunter effort and hunter success make 
use of returns received before March 6, 1962. Hunter 
success fell off 5 per cent in Clark and 13 per cent 
in Darlington Township over the previous year. This 
was attributed to two factors. First, successful 
hunters are more likely to reply to questionnaires 
than unsuccessful hunters, thus the data are somewhat 
biased in favour of successful hunters and, secondly, 
the 1962 mail survey probably resulted in a better 
sampling of unsuccessful hunters than in previous years. 



DISTRIBUTION. BANDING AND RELEASE OF PHEASANTS 

(a) Distribution and Release Clarke Twp. Darlington Twp. 

Number Per cent Number Per cent Total 

Chicks allotted 2.500 100.0 3.500 100.0 6.000 

died during raising 524 21.0 410 11.7 934 

died due to Hydro failu re 476 19.0 - ^76 

net released 1,500 6OT0 3,490 38.3 4,590 

Poults 300 200 500 

Adults 150 200 350 



Total birds released 

(b) Banding 

banded 
unbanded 

Total birds 



1,950 



3,490 



5,440 



Clarke Twp. Darlington Twp. 
Number Per cent Number Per cent 
1,300 66.7 2,700 77.4 
650 33.3 790 22.6 

1,950 100.0 3,490 100.0 



Although the allotment of birds in 1961 was identical to 
that of I960, the considerably higher mortality (especially in 
Clarke Township) resulted in a decline of 1060 in the number of birds 
released. 

The proportion of the released pheasants that were banded 
was increased by 17 per cent in Clarke Township and by over 10 per cent 
in Darlington Township. The actual number banded was only slightly 
higher in 1961 while the number of unbanded birds fell sharply. 



- 12 - 



SALE OF LICENCES 

Licences Sold Clarke Twp. 



resident 
non-resident 

Totals 



240 
229 

469 



Darlington Twp 

431 
430 

911 



Total 

671 
709 



The Clarke Township figures include 50 resident and 50 
non-resident licences for which book-backs were not available. It 
is quite likely that some of these licences remained unsold. 
Nevertheless, there was a general increase in licence sales as 
compared with those of I960. The total number sold is quite similar 
to that for 1959> however, Clarke Township sales accounted for a 
better portion of the total in 1961. 

RETURN OF SURVEY CARDS 

Hunter response is calculated as follows: 

cards completed x 100 

total cards mailed out - cards undelivered 



Clarke Twp. 

residents 

non-residents 
Total 
Darlington Twp. 

residents 

non-residents 
Total 



Completed 



109 
72. 



CARD S 
Not 
Returned 

79 
88 



181 

245 
267 



512 



167 

160 
190 



Undelivered 



2 

Ik 



16 

24 
20 



Total 
Mailed 

190 

12A_ 



350 



44 



364 
429 
906 



Hunter 
Response 

58.0$ 
45.0°/? 
52. 

60. 
_5& 



59. 



Addresses given on the 1961 licence-book backs were checked 
against a list of I960 hunters. However, since complete addresses 
were not always obtainable, the total cards mailed does not equal the 
number of licences sold. Because time did not permit a thorough 
comparison of I960 and 1961 names, the information provided below in 
hunters purchasing one or both of the two township licences in both 
I960 and 1961 must be regarded as minimal. 



Hunters Buying Township 
Licence in Both I960 and 1961 

Clarke Township 
Darlington Township 

Totals 



Resident 

118 (62.1$) 
224 (52.( 

342 



Non-Resident Total 

.66 (36.99S) 

189 (39.4#) 

255 597 



184 (49. 
W (45 * 



- 13 - 



SAMPLE SIZE AND CONVERSION FACTORS 



Clarke Township 
resident 
non-resident 

Total 

Darlington Township 
resident 
non-resident 

Total 

Combined Townships 
resident 
non-resident 



Licences 
Sold 



13^0 



Completed 
Cards 



Sample 



693 



Conversion 
Factor 



240 
229 


109 
72 


45 c 4$ 
31.4$ 


2.202 
3.181 


469 


181 


38,6% 




431 
430 


245 
267 


56.8% 
55.6$ 


1.759 
1.798 


911 


512 


56,2% 




671 
709 


354 
339 


52,8% 
47.8% 





50. 



The size of this sample is considerably greater than any 
previously obtained by the return of cards given to hunters when they 
purchased their licences. 



LICENCEES WHO DID NOT HUNT PHEASANTS 

Resident 



Clarke Township 
Darlington Township 

Totals 

HUNTER SUCCESS 



Non-Resident 
12 4 

11 13 

23 17 



Total 
"To" 
24 

40 



Per cent 
Com leted Cards 

o 

4.7 
5^ 



Successful Success Unsuccessful 



Clarke Township 
resident 
non-resident 

Total 



Number 

65 
—H— 



Number 



Darlington Township 

resident 113 

non-resident 143 

Total 256 



67 % 

60 % 

64.2% 



32 



Pheasant Hunters 

97 
68 



48.3% 
56. 3% 



59 

121 
111 



165 



234 
2 



52.5% 



232 



4* 



Hunter success has fallen 5 per cent in Clarke and 13 
per cent in Darlington Township. Although this figure has declined 
over the past two years, two factors must be considered when comparing 
the data from 1959 and I960 with that of 1961. First, since it is 
suspected that successful hunters are more likely to reply than un- 
successful hunters, the data obtained each year are undoubtedly some- 
what biased in favour of successful hunters. Secondly, the 1962 
mail survey probably resulted in a better sampling of unsuccessful 
hunters than in previous years. 



- 14 - 

HUNTING EFFORT 

Part days recorded on the cards were entered as full days. 

Successful Unsuccessful 

Hunters Hunters All Hunters 

Days Days /Man Days Days /Man Days Days /Man 
Clarke Township 

resident 227 3.5 76 2.4 303 3.1 

non-resident 156 3.8 54 2.0 210 3.1 

Combined ~WT 3.6 130 2.2 513 3-1 

Darlington Township 

resident 513 4.5 332 2.7 845 3-6 

non-resident 578 4.0 365 3.3 943 3.7 

Combined 1091 4-3 697 3.0 1788 3-7 

Successful hunters appear to hunt longer while Darlington 
hunters spend more effort than Clarke hunters. 

PHEASANT KILL 

Number of Birds Shot Percentage of Total Kill 

Cocks Hens Total Cocks Hens Total 
Clarke Township 

resident 135 83 218 61.9 38.1 100.0 

non-resident _86 60 146 58.9 41.1 100.0 

Combined 221 143 364 60.7 39.3 100,0 
Darlington Township 

resident 207 142 349 59-3 40.7 100.0 

non-resident 304 166 470 64.7 35.3 100.0 

Combined 511 ~303 819 02T4 37.6 100.0 

GRAND TOTALS 732 451 1183 

Although the total birds shot is ever twice that reported 
in I960, the sex ratio of three cocks to two hens remains constant. 

Pheasants Killed Per Hunter Resident Non-Resident Combined 

Clarke Township 2.25 2.15 2.21 

Darlington Township 1.49 I.85 1.68 

In comparison with I960 combined figures the number of 
pheasants shot per hunter has risen by 0,43 birds in Clarke Township 
and fallen by 0.47 birds in Darlington. Thus the 1961 figure for 
Darlington is almost the same as the I960 figure for Clarke and vice 
versa. 



- 15 - 



BANDED BIRDS REPORTED SHOT 



If a return showed that at least one bird was banded, but 

did not indicate the exact number of banded birds in the bag, one 

bird was arbitrarily added to the banded total. Sixty- four (64) cards 
were treated in this manner. 



Number of Banded Birds Killed Resident 



Clarke Township 
Darlington Township 



Year Reported Kill 



1959 
I960 
1961 



482 

559 

1183 



38 (17.4$) 
113 (32.4$) 



Per cent Reported 
Banded 

65.5 
47 cO 
26.1 



Non-Resident 

47 (32.2$) 
111 (23.6$) 



Combined 

85 (23.4$) 
224 (27.4$) 
309 (26.1$) 



Return Cards 



given out with licence 
given out with licence 
mailed out after hunt 



The decline in the proportion of banded birds in the bag 
(already noted in the I960 report) appears to be real, although it is 
probably somewhat less marked than the above figures would indicate. 



ESTIMATED TOTAL HUNTER KILL 



Conversion figures given previously are used in the 
following estimates made from reported kills. 



Clarke Township 
resident 
non-resident 
Combined 

Darlington Township 
resident 
non-resident 
Combined 

Both Townships 
resident 
non-resident 
Combined 



Estimated Total 
Pheasant Kill 

480 

464 

944 

614 



84 



1459 

1094 
1?09 



2403 



Estimated Total 
Banded 

84 

150 
234 

199 

200 

399 

283 
3 50 



633 



The total estimated kill for 1961 is just 45 birds less than 
the estimate for I960. The estimated banded kill of 633 birds is only 
15.8. per cent of the banded birds released in 1961. 



to 1961, 



Some of the reported bands were from birds released prior 



- 16 - 



BANDS RECOVERED 

Data on actual band returns and on reported recoveries 
are included in the following table » 









KiJ 


Lied By Hunters 


Other 
Kills 


Total 


Released 


Clarke 


Darlington 


Other Twp, 


Bands 


Clarke 


1961 


69 




9 


4 


3 


85 


Darlington 


1961 


14 




122 


2 


8 


146 


Clarke 


I960 


1 




1 






2 


Darlington 


1960 


4 




18 






22 




1959 


1 




3 






4 




1952 






1 






1 




1957 


1 




1 






2 



262 



Of the above bands 185 were reported on survey cards 
The I960 band recoveries totalled 261., 



- 17 - 









M. 














^ISlSfe 














ONTARIO 














DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 












LINDSAY DISTRICT PHEASANT SURVEY 














FOR CLARKE TOWNSHIP 








Please 


fill in 


and return this card even if no 


birds 


are taken, 


> 










Number of 
Number of 
Band Numbs 
Name 


days 
bird 

srs 


hunted 








3 taken, cocks hens 
























Township licence 


nc 


• 







Please 


fill 


LINDSAY 
FOR 

in and . 


DISTRICT PHEASANT SURVEY 
DARLINGTON TOWNSHIP 

return this card even if no b: 


.rds 


are taken. 
Number of d£ 
Number of b: 
Band Numbers 
Name 


iys 
.rd; 


hunted 
3 taken, cocks 


hens 
































Township licence 


no. 







- 18 - 




WHEN REPLYING KINDLY QUOTE 
THIS FILE NUMBER 



ONTARIO 
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH 



LINDSAY, Ontario, 
October 28, 1961. 



Dear Sir: 

The Department of Lands and Forests at Lindsay is 
conducting an assessment of the Pheasant stocking program in 
Clarke and Darlington Townships. In this connection, would 
you, as a regulated township licencee, kindly fill out the 
enclosed card and send it to this office as soon as possible? 

We would appreciate your return even if you were 
unsuccessful in bagging any birds in these townships last 
fall. Information supplied by hunters in surveys such as 
this is invaluable in assisting us to gain better knowledge 
of a game species. This in turn will lead to improved 
management practices which will be to the benefit of both 
hunters and game species concerned. 

May we please have your co-operation and assistance 
in the prompt return of the completed card? Please note that 
no postage is required. Thank you. 

Yours very truly, 



D. R. Wilson, 
KKI:MM District Forester. 

Encl. 



- 

■ 






■ 



-■ ■ . 



- 19 - 

REPORTS ON THE ALGONQUIN NATIONAL 

PARK OF ONTARIO FOR THE YEAR 1893 - 

Mr. James Wilson* s Report * 

Abstract 

This very early report on Algonquin Park made the 
year following its establishment gives a description 
of portions of the Park traversed by the principal 
waterways* The author discusses the protection of 
game and the effects of lumbering in the Park. He 
also makes a number of suggestions as to its manage- 
ment and administration. 



To the Honorable A. S. Hardy, 

Commissioner of Crown Lands, etc. 

Dear Sir, — In compliance with your request I spent some time 
in the late autumn of last year in visiting the territory which 
has been set apart by the Province as a National Park and Forest 
Reservation, under the title of The Algonquin National Park of 
Ontario; and in further compliance with your wishes, I beg to make 
some observations thereon, and also to offer a few suggestions in 
respect to its care and management. 

The territory set apart under the Act of 1893 comprises some 
eighteen townships in the Nipissing District, and covers an average 
breadth from east to west of nearly thirty-six miles, by an average 
of some forty miles in length from north to south; or more correctly, 
two tiers of five townships on the west and two of four townships on 
the east. 

Routes Into the Park 

Access to the Park is at present somewhat difficult, as it is 
remote from railway connection, and the only roads leading in from 
any direction are those which have been opened up by lumbermen to 
take in supplies to their winter camps. These are mere paths or 
trails through the woods, wretchedly made, and of course very rough 
and tortuous. 

Huntsville, a station on the Northern and North-western branch 
of the Grand Trunk Railway, and distant 145 miles from Toronto, appears 
to be the best point of debarkation at present for any party going in 
from the south or west. From Huntsville there are two routes now 
available; one via Dorset on the Lake of Bays, with a 22-mile drive 
over a newly opened lumber road to Gilmour's camp on South Tea lake, 
or the old route via the North River, a branch of the Muskoka, by 
canoe from Dwight, also on Lake of Bays to the same objective point. 
The latter route was the only one open to me, as the road from Dorset 
was not completed at the time of my visit. On the west side of the 
Park there is a lumberman 1 s wagon road from Sundridge on the G. T. R, 

*We are able to reproduce this early report on Algonquin Park through 
the courtesy of the Legislative Library, Toronto. 



- 20 - 

37 miles north of Huntsville, leading into the depot of Messrs, 
Barnet on Burnt lake, some 36 miles distant. On the north a much 
used wagon road enters from Dieux Rivieres on the Canadian Pacific 
Railway to the Hawkesbury Lumber Company's Depot on Cedar lake, 
some 24 miles; and another from Eau Claire, also on the C. P. R., 
to Kioshkoqui lake, of nearly the same length,, Besides these, there 
are said to be several wagon trails on the north-east and south; but 
in all cases they are not desirable routes to travel over when it is 
possible to avoid theme As an instance, it may be stated that on 
some of these so-called roads a load for a team is frequently limited 
to two barrels of porkc The only means of transportation in the Park 
during the open season is afforded by canoes > and these must be had 
by intending tourists before proceeding inland, A supply of suitable 
provisions should also be provided, as it will not be possible to 
obtain these in the Park, and a guide must be selected who is 
familiar with the ground to be travelled over. 

Possibly a brief outline of the tour I was able to make through 
the Park may prove of interest; and at the same time it will afford 
me an opportunity of dealing with questions relating to the property 
or its management, as they were presented from time to time en route. 

Huntsville to Canoe Lake 

Through the good offices of Dr, Howland of Huntsville a good 
canoe man who had hunted and trapped over some of the ground now 
included in the Park, and who could therefore act as guide, was 
secured at that place and the "pack" got ready. On October 31st 
we started in by steamer up Fairy and Peninsula lakes to Portage, 
where passengers and baggage are transferred over to Lake of Bays, 
a distance of one mile. Lake of Bays is a fine sheet of water reach- 
ing out its arms into five townships. It has two steamers plying 
from Portage on the north to Baysville on the south, Dorset on the 
east and Dwight on the north-east. In this instance in order to 
get to Dwight the steamer ran down the whole length of the lake to 
Baysville, rer.ained there over night and returned up the lake in the 
morning. This necessitated a late start from Dwight, a small hamlet 
on the confines of settlement, which since my visit has been favored 
with telegraphic commun . nation with the outer world, From Dwight 
there is a seven-mile portage to Oxcongue lake, and a team can be 
had to portage canoe", and packs across. Two and one-half hours 
are required for this service a Thore are a few scattered settlers 
on Oxtongue lake, which lies in the township of McClintock; but 
beyond this there is no habitation of any kind excepting at a few 
points in the Park where 1 lumberman's depot has been established, 
and at Manitou lake where there is a settler. 

Thirty minutes' paddling on Oxtongue lake, and the mouth of the 
North river is entered. North river, so called, is one of the 
principal branches of the I-Tuskoka, and at this point is a winding 
stream of dark water some three chains in width. Forty minutes of 
paddling against the stream, and Ragged Falls is reached, where there 
is a short but steep portage over which the canoes and pack must be 
carried. At this place a timber slide has been newly erected by 
Messrs, Gilmour to facilitate the "driving" of logs from their timber 
limits in the Park on towards that company's mills at Trenton on 
Lake Ontario, 



- 21 - 

Less than half an hour ? s paddling from the head of Ragged Falls, 
and the long portage at High Falls is reached,, This portage requires 
fully thirty minutes to pack over when the loads are light and can 
be carried in one trip. When several trips are necessary much time 
may be required before all is ready for a new start „ 

Beyond High Falls (at which place also the Gilmours have built 
a slide) there is a long reach of river with numerous small portages 
or "lift outs," and requiring fully six hours of continuous work at 
the paddles before the west boundary of the Park is gained. From 
this point there is another hour* s hard work to get to the outlet of 
South Tea lake, where the Gilmours have erected a new and extensive 
lumber camp and supply depot* As this point is the chief centre of 
their timber limit and the starting point for the river drive of 
logs, a substantial dam with sluiceway has been built, by means of 
which the water level of the lakes draining into the North river at 
this point can be raised several feet, and the quantity of water 
passing down the river regulated to suit the requirements of the 
drive 

South Tea lake is near the southwest corner of the Park. It is 
a beautiful <rheet of water some two miles in length. Its broad 
smooth v;aters and expanding scenery afford a welcome change to the 
tourist after battling with the long and tortuous river from Oxtongue 
lake. This lake is connect 3d with Canoe lake by another reach of 



"oho North river 



Thp _?a rk . ' _ ■ quart e r 3 



Canoe lake is a mere pretentious sheet of water than South Tea 
lake, and has been selected for the site of the headquarters of the 
Park rangers. Headquarters consist of a well-built log shanty 
21 x 28 feet in dimensions with a good floor and roof, and standing 
well up from the level of the lake. Six sleeping berths of the 

. omary lumber -shanty pattern are ranged along one end of the 
single room, and a sheet-iron stove affords rather inadequate 
facilities for cooking and other general purposes . Sheds for 
storage of canoes and for firewood will of course b,e built in due 
time. The site for headquarters was chosen on account of its posi- 
tion commanding the route to the chains of waters which lie to the 
north and east, and is convenient on that account; and also for the 
facilities it has of getting in supplies and mail matter when the 
lumber camps are in corcnission ; as it is distant but an hour and a 
half by water from the depot or. South Tea lake. Another reason 
which probably weigh in the selection was the projected location 
of the Arnprior and Parry Sound Railway near to its northern shore. 
This railway, if built as proposed, would bring this part of the 
?ark into more immediate connection with the outer world, and would 
therefore require special supervision on the part of the Park rangers. 

however the Park domain is entered on every side by hunters and 
trappers, scrre of whom have for many years followed their calling on 
'hem.argin of its streams and waters, it will probably be found 
iesirable to have the che f lieu moved to a point nearer to the centre 
if the territory. 



rl 



- 22 - 

Northwards from Canoe lake, and still following the main branch 
of the Muskoka river, there is a series of waters known as Joe, 
Little Joe and Island lakes — the last named above five miles in 
length and two in extreme width, though of very irregular shape. In 
point of fact all the lakes in the Park are of irregular outline, 
and many of them are extremely tortuous. From Island lake a short 
portage over the height of land circumscribing the Muskoka waters 
leads into Little Otter Slide lake, one of the headwaters of the 
great Petawawa river, which drains almost one-half of the territory 
comprising the Park, and flowing eastward empties into the Ottawa 
river at the head of Allumette island. Little Otter Slide and Otter 
Slide lakes are connected by a broad stream without rapids, but there 
is a very rough bit of river from Otter Slide to White Trout lake, 
and a four-mile portage to Grassy bay, which notwithstanding its 
many discomforts and severe labor is frequently made in preference 
to following the course of the stream. 

The Petawawa and Amable Du Fond Lakes 

From White Trout lake there is a magnificent chain of navigable 
waters with comparatively few portages intervening, extending to the 
north-east angle of the Park; and from thence across the northerly 
end of the Park to and beyond its westerly limits. This chain 
embraces V/hite Trout, Longer, Red Pine, Burnt, Perley, Catfish, 
Narrow, Cedar, Little Cauchon and Cauchon lakes — all in the Petawawa 
series of waters, and Mink, Kioshkoqui, Manitou and the two Tea 
lakes on the Amable du Fond series. There are but three portages on 
the whole of this noble reach of waters that can be considered in 
any way objectionable. One of these is at the "Five Mile" on the 
Petawawa between Narrow and Cedar lakes, where there is a somewhat 
trying portage of a mile and a half. The other two are between 
Kioshkoqui and Manitou lakes, and are each about threequarters of a 
mile in length. All the others, including the one over the height of 
land separating the two water systems, are comparatively easy, and 
are rather welcome than otherwise to the tourist, as they afford a 
chance to stretch the limbs after the cramped position incidental to 
a canoe journey. The western boundary of the Park crosses the Tea 
lakes at their point of junction. 

From an examination of the accompanying map it will be observed 
that the route outlined above closely follows the main course of the 
waters of the Petawawa and Amable du Ford. There are numerous streams 
and rivers flowing into this main channel that are well worthy of 
being visitedo In fact the territory is literally covered with lakes 
and ponds of great natural beauty but the time at my disposal forbade 
lingering, as the lateness of the season and the constant prospect 
of frost threatened at any time to close up the only means of communi- 
cation,, As it was a good deal of time was lost in breaking a channel 
for the canoes through the ice on some of the sheltered streams. 

White Trout to Great Opeon ro 

Retracing our way to the outlet of White Trout lake a new course 
was taken in order to see the Great Opeongo lake. Traversing a bad 
portage of some three miles we reach Merchants 9 lake, another of the 
headwaters of the Petawawa, and a very pretty sheet of water some 
two miles long. A short portage over the height of land from Merchants* 
lake and Green lake is reached, another beautiful basin, whose sandy 



- 23 - 

shores present a pleasant contrast to the rugged, rocky outlines so 
generally characteristic of these inland waters . Green lake is the 
extreme northerly source of the great Madawaska river, which drains 
a very extensive reach of country to the east and south of the Park 
and finally enters the Ottawa river at Arnprior. The outlet from 
Green lake is very rough, and a long portage of some two miles is 
necessary in order to reach the Great Opeongo lake* 

This is the largest sheet of water in the Park, and is truly 
a noble expanse of many square miles in extent. From north to south 
its extreme limits embrace some twelve miles, while in width it 
measures seven miles at one point. The outlet is at the south-east 
angle, where a large stream carries its waters into McDougal lake and 
thence to the east limit of the Park, which is crossed at a point a 
couple of miles from the southern boundary, several large lakes 
adding their quota to its volume near that point. Great Opeongo 
lake is very irregular in shape, the extensive east bay being separ- 
ated from the main body of the lake by a narrows limited to a few 
feet in width, and the narrows dividing the north and south bays 
being but a few chains wide. The lake has numerous islands and 
presents many picturesque features. When seen in the hazy dawn of 
an Indian summer morning its beauties make a lasting impression on 
the mind, even though the larder may be empty and one has to seek far 
for somewhat to stay the cravings of hunger. 

Great Opeongo is not always safe for canoe navigation, as in 
fact is the case to a greater or less degree with all the larger 
lakes in the Park. The great expanse of water gives scope to the 
wind, so that frequently a few minutes suffice to change the surface 
from the proverbial sea of glass to foam-crested billows, when the 
frail canoe must quickly find a haven of refuge or be swamped beneath 
the turbulent waters. Fortunately the irregularity of outline, already 
referred to, usually affords an opportunity of shelter when storms 
arise; but escape is often protracted until the storm abates, as 
through all this territory the waterway is the only available route 
from place to place. 

Great Opeongo Back to Canoe Lake 

From the south end of Lake Opeongo the best known route to the 
west is by a rough portage to Welcome lake of about four miles-a 
trying ordeal even in November, when packs are heavy and the uneven 
ground wet and slippery. From Welcome lake the trail leads the 
west branch of the Madawaska at a point some distance above Whitefish 
lake. En route there is a series of small lakes with portages inter- 
vening of from one-quarter to three-quarters of a mile in length, 
some of them being difficult. Following the course of the Madawaska 
against the stream for two miles Lake of Two Rivers is reached; 
crossing it to the west end (lj miles) the Madawaska is again followed 
for about ten miles to Cache lake. At this part of its course the 
Madawaska is a small stream and remarkably crooked. The distance 
measured in a straight line from Lake of Two Rivers to Cache lake 
is not over four miles, while as above stated the course to be gone 
over is fully 2\ times that distance. Between Cache and Smoke lakes 
there are several large ponds or lakes, the chief one being Little 
Island lake, a goodly sized water with a large island in the middle. 



- 24 - 

The four portages aggregate about one mile in length, the last one 
being over the height of land dividing the Madawaska waters from 
those of the Muskoka. Smoke lake has a length of about four miles, 
and receives at its southern extremity the waters of Ragged lake on 
the south boundary of the Park with its several tributaries, and 
outflows into the north branch of the Muskoka via South Tea lake. A 
half mile portage leads from Smoke to Canoe lake at its extreme south- 
ern limit, whence it is but a two mile paddle up the lake to head- 
quarters. 

The lake scenery throughout is very beautiful. Each expanse of 
water has some charm peculiarly its own. On every side the forest 
primeval clothes the hills and mountains with verdure of varying 
hue down to the very shore; deep shades are thrown across the dark 
waters of the lake, whose placid surface mirrors to perfection every 
outline of cloud or hill, tree or rock; while the baby ripples from 
the bow of the canoe, or the congeries of air bubbles from each 
stroke of the paddles glisten in the sunlight like diamonds, or as 
the stars on a December night. To the tourist the continual change 
from lake to river, from river to portage, and from portage to river 
and lake again, make a delightful panorama which captivates the eye 
and the senses, and provides abundant opportunity for the cultiva- 
tion of the tastes in the study of all the varying phases of the 
landscape, and impels a seeking after more perfect knowledge of the 
many varieties of animal and vegetable life which have their habitat 
in the territory. 

It may be mentioned en passant that the time required to make the 
trip outlined above and beginning at Oxtongue lake, where the canoe 
was put into the water and back to the same point, actually took 
thirteen days to accomplish — or from 1st to 14th November. In 
summer when the days are longer less time would be required. The 
distance travelled was about 230 miles of canoe navigation and over 
30 of land portages. 

All the lakes are well stocked with fish. Grey or lake trout, 
salmon and brook trout are the principal kinds found; brook trout 
weighing from one pound to two pounds and the others varying from 
four pounds to thirty pounds or over. Large numbers of the young 
of these fish are annually destroyed by gulls and loons, and it might 
be advisable to consider the propriety of waging war upon the latter, 
as neither bird is of much commercial value, and their depredations 
largely outweigh other considerations. 

Effects of Lumbering in the Park 

One cannot proceed far upon Park property without encountering 
some of the many evidences of the presence of the lumberman; and 
certainly at first sight the effect is depressing. All the lands 
embraced in the Park limits are now covered with licenses to cut 
timber. In fact, pine timber has been cut on some of the territory 
for nearly fifty years, and on a very large area licenses were issued 
before Confederation. The south-west corner has been under license 
but two years. There are quite a number of firms who have an inter- 
est in the standing timber of these lands, and several of them are 
busily engaged in removing the timber, principally the pine. One 
firm, Messrs. Gilmour, have ten camps located on their limit, each 



- 25 - 

camp numbering from thirty to thirty-five men* In all, probably 
600 men may, at the present time, be at work lumbering in the Park; 
and the total output representing this winter* s work will certainly 
amount to many millions of feet. The felling of every pine tree 
means the maiming or destruction of several other trees; and the 
aggregate loss entailed by these operations in the forest wealth of 
the limits is very large. It must be understood that the pine is 
not totally cleaned out by the lumbermen, the specifications of the 
firms varying in respect to the size, but as a rule nothing less 
than ten inches in diameter is taken. Doubtless on some of the 
limits every sound pine tree down to these dimensions will be removed. 
It will be many years before the Park can, under existing contracts, 
be freed from these operations, so that any shceme from the preserva- 
tion or development or supervision of the property must take the lum- 
berman into account. This condition of affairs has however some 
redeeming features, one of these being the improvement of the water- 
ways, by the erection of dams at the outlets of the lakes and at 
some of the rapids or falls, the effect of which is to raise the 
level of the water, and also by removing obstructions in the streams 
and rivers. The making of roads, such as they are, into the terri- 
tory may also be mentioned, but the chief offset is the fact that 
the Province realizes large revenues from the timber cut from year 
to year, as well as from the bonus paid at the time of granting 
the license. It must be steadily borne in mind that it is practically 
impossible to secure the preservation of the forest, although it be 
allowed to remain in a state of nature. No amount of precaution on 
the part of the authorities can guarantee total immunity from this 
destroyer, and one fire may cause more damage in a couple of days 
than an army of lumbermen in years* When the limits are under 
license the assistance of the lumbermen in preventing and quenching 
fires is assured. The lumberman must be borne with until all the 
limits are denuded of their merchantable pine, whenever that may 
be. Some portions of the Park are now practically "cleaned out," 
and abandoned lumbermen's camps, of which there are many scattered 
through the Park, are mute evidences of where his axe held sway. 

How to Protect the Gam e 

With respect to the protection to be afforded the birds and 
animals now found in the Park, it would appear from a careful consi- 
deration of the question that the only possible means at command for 
preserving these and giving them an opportunity to increase is to 
put down poaching with a strong hand. It will be absolutely neces- 
sary for some years to come, or until public sentiment has been 
aroused and sympathy with the objects in view on the part of those 
living off the confines of the Park secured, to strengthen the hands 
of the Chief Ranger by putting in a strong force of capable men as 
rangers or constables — men familiar with all the devious ways of 
trappers, and who can be relied on to faithfully carry out their 
instructions. During my visit to the Park it was evident that the 
regulations were being disregarded; and while the rangers under 
Chief Thomson were busily engaged in the necessary work of getting 
shelters provided at different points in the wide field for the men 
when on patrol during cold or stormy weather, trappers were plying 
their vocation on the remote waters, and escaping by the numerous 
trails to where a safe market for their catch could be had. The 
presence of large numbers of lumbermen, many of them more or less 
skillful in trapping, will add to the difficulty of the rangers in 



- 26 - 

enforcing the regulations, particularly in the vicinity of the numer- 
ous camps. The constant communication by teams with the various 
supply depots for these camps will make the smuggling of a catch 
of furs from the Park to market a comparatively easy matter. 

The force of rangers needed for the protection of the fur-bearing 
animals will be all the more necessary if the moose and deer are to 
be preserved. Undoubtedly these noble specimens of animal life are 
becoming scarce, and it will be a matter for sincere and lasting 
regret if strong efforts are not made to prevent their practical 
extermination from this section of Ontario. To many men it appears 
strange that with all our boasted civilization these animals are 
still often wantonly slaughtered even by so-called sportsmen. 
Hunting them with dogs and canoes in the vicinity of large waters 
can at the best be considered but a sorry sort of sport. 

Park Limits Should be Exten ded 

I am informed on reliable authority that the territory lying to 
the west of the present Park limits has long been a favorite run for 
deer, more especially the townships of McCraney, Butt and Paxton. 
Settlers in these townships are as yet few and far between, and I 
would assume the responsibility of suggesting to the Commissioner 
that he consider the advisability of adding to the territorial 
limits of the Park the range of townships on the west, viz: — Ballantyne, 
Paxton, Butt, McCraney and the eastern portion of Finlayson. The 
westerly line of these townships is the dividing line between the 
districts of Parry Sound and Nipissing, and will make a most desirable 
line of demarcation between the lands reserved for the Park and lands 
open to settlement. These townships are all in the height of land 
where deer are wont to roam and where they seek shelter in stormy 
weather. Again, over considerable ranges of this territory the 
water-ways do not afford ready means of travel, and consequently 
fewer tourists and hunters invade it. Altogether it would be a 
most desirable addition to the Park domain; and unless there be 
very strong reasons why it should not be set apart for this purpose, 
its early designation as part of the reserve may he hoped for. 
Provision is made in the Park Act for such a proceeding. The 
southerly half, if not the whole, of the township of Boyd could also 
with great advantage be added to the reservation. The principal 
chain of the north branch of the Petewawa waters, by which access is 
had to the fine range of the Amable du Fond waters on the northwest 
corner of the Park, runs through this township and outside of the 
present limits of the Park. For this reason it would appear to be 
almost a necessity that this connecting link, which must form one of 
the main routes of the Park rangers for all time, should be wholly 
within the Park — a matter to which the attention of the Commissioner 
is respectfully directed. 

From the fact that the townships above referred to were not 
embraced in the limits recommended by the Royal Commissioners appointed 
to report on the Park project, it is assumed that there may be objec- 
tions to including them which may indeed possibly be insuperable; 
but on the other hand there can be no manner of doubt that every 
square mile of territory added to the limits will favor the preserva- 
tion of the deer and moose; and this result alone is well worthy of 
an effort to overcome surmountable difficulties. In addition to this 



- 27 ■- 

result, however, all the aims had in view in the establishment of the 
Park will be made more stable and secure. 

Destruction of Noxious Animals 

Wolves are said to be very numerous in the Park* They are the 
natural enemies of every desirable form of animal life* A deter- 
mined effort should be made to destroy them; and to this end the 
energies of the rangers should be directed, especially during the 
winter months, when the lakes are frozen over and poison may be 
readily used without endangering other forms of life. It may also 
be worth considering whether the bounty presently paid for the destruc- 
tion of wolves within the Province might not be increased with 
advantage. Bears and foxes should also be destroyed without mercy; 
and it is equally worthy of consideration whether a Government 
bounty should not be paid for the heads of these pests. 

The Park Act provides that a special license may be issued by 
the Commissioner of Crown Lands upon the recommendation of the 
Superintendent for the destruction of wolves, bears, and other wild 
and noxious animals. It would certainly be to the interest of the 
Park to take advantage of the provisions of the Act and secure a few 
good men for extra service in this way under the supervision of the 
Chief Ranger 

Accommodation for Rangers and Tourists 

Reference has been made to the necessity of removing headquarters 
from its present location on Canoe lake c Were it not for the dif- 
ficulty of getting in supplies, Great Opeongo lake would be an ideal 
location for this purpose, Quite likely a route to the latter place 
may be found which will be reasonably favorable, but for the present 
the wisdom of the choice of Canoe lake can hardly be questioned. As, 
however, a new site must be selected, a fairly good one can be had at 
some point on the same lake but nearer to the south end, where a 
commodious building with the necessary sheds should be erected. 

I am decidedly of the opinion that in addition to headquarters 
on Canoe lake three substantial sub depots should be built at points 
not remote from the four corners of the Park, and if possible easy 
of access for the purpose of getting in supplies, say at Opeongo 
lake on the east and at Kioshkoqui and Trout lakes on the north, each 
of these to be fitted up for occupation by married rangers. A small 
piece of land in connection with each of these depots could be 
cleared for the raising of a few vegetables, etc., and in time 
sufficient for the pasturage and maintenance of a cow. By this 
means, and with night-shelters scattered over the territory at inter- 
vals of a day* s journey apart, something like comfortable accommo- 
dations could be afforded the rangers, and the Park more readily 
brought under a system of efficient patrol. Already some fifteen 
small night-shelters have been put up at suitable locations. Others 
can be built from time to time as found to be needed. 

There is no question that the many attractions of the Park will 
ere long be eagerly sought out by parties of tourists from all the 
cities of Ontario. For many years camping parties from Buffalo and 
Rochester have been visiting the territory and spending some time 
each season revelling amid its health-giving charms; and doubtless, 



- 2d - 

the new and improved conditions will awaken a much wider interest 
and attract many others. For this reason the design of the depots 
should provide some spare room for the shelter of tourists in case 
of need (until such time as hotel accommodation is provided) as well 
as the lodging of such of the rangers as may be required to rendez- 
vous there from time to time. Food supplies might also be obtain- 
able at the depot, under regulations of the Chief Ranger. 

At the foot of Manitou lake there is an Indian half-breed 
settler located, who has a very intimate knowledge of the waterways 
of the Park, the family having for generations hunted and trapped in 
this neighborhood „ He is said to be a reliable man, having employ- 
ment for some months of the year as fire ranger. As he has title to 
some land there it may be a prudent course to designate him as an 
official guide for the benefit of tourists who may wish to enter the 
Park from the west. 

Possibly it would be desirable for the Chief Ranger to have 
authority to license guides to the Park and have some sort of 
authority over them. 

In order to facilitate the movements of the rangers in patrol- 
ling the streams and rivers, I would suggest the advisability of the 
erection of simple timber dams at points where there are small 
rapids and shallows so as to reduce the length of the portages to a 
minimum. The larger portages to avoid rapids usually take a wind- 
ing course away from the water and consequently at present such 
portions are not readily examined by the rangers. Every additional 
bit of river that can be navigated by canoe will make the work of the 
rangers more effective, and at the same time the toil incident to 
the long portages will be avoided and their movements appreciably 
expedited. There were many places en route on the occasion of my 
visit where such work could be done with but little expenditure of 
labor, and doubtless on the side streams and inland waters, where 
poachers will now cause most trouble, there are numerous instances 
which will present themselves to the Chief Ranger where such work would 
be of great assistance, particularly at periods of low water. 

The nomenclature of the lakes in the Park requires revising; 
and it would be judicious to have this done authoritatively before 
maps of the territory on a reasonably large scale are published for 
the use of tourists and visitors. For instance there are Tea lakes 
at either extremity of the Park, numerous Wolf lakes, Trout lakes, 
Long lakes, etc., etc, all of which is confusing to the visitor. 
Such maps should also show the positions of all the portages to aid 
those who may venture into the territory without a guide. 

In conclusion permit me to say that the map which accompanied 
this letter has been reduced from the maps of the several townships, 
and it should therefore be reasonably correct. Two of the townships 
have # not been surveyed, and I have been unable to secure data for 
filling in the waterways on this portion. Possibly there may be 



- 29 - 

some maps in the possession of the Department which will permit of 
this being done with tolerable accuracy. 

The map indicates the additional territory which I have taken 
the liberty of suggesting should be set apart for Park purposes. 

I have the honor to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

JAMES WILSON, 

Superintendent Queen Victoria Niagara Falls Park. 

Niagara Falls, February, 1894» 



- 30 - 

ELECTRIC WATER THERMOMETER 

by 
B. V, Kerr 
Conservation Officer, Chapleau 

Abstract 

Dissatisfaction with the slowness of operation of 
the maximum - minimum type thermometer led to a 
search for a more satisfactory instrument for lake 
survey work. An article on an electric water 
thermometer was found in Science and Mechanics 
Magazine. Some modifications were made to adapt 
the instrument to rugged field usage A sensi- 
tive thermistor utilized in the probe of the in- 
strument gives temperature readings down to 100 
feet or more. The unit is compact, lightweight and 
inexpensive; all parts purchased new should cost less 
than $20.00. Temperature is read directly from the 
meter in degrees Fahrenheit. 



Parts 

Total cost for parts will vary between $10. and $20., 
depending on where the parts are purchased, and the quality of the 
parts. Some saving can be made by constructing a small plywood 
case instead of purchasing a plastic case, and by constructing a 
battery holder instead of purchasing one. 



Description 

1.34 volt mercury cell (Mallory RM-401R) 

0-1 ma D„C. Milliammeter 

500 ohm control (Mallory type U-2) 

1000 ohm control (Mallory type U-4) 

S.P.D.T. toggle switch 

1250 ohm thermistor (Veco 31A1) 

miniature parallel cable (Belden #87&2) 

1 holder for mercury cell 

Miscellaneous: Machine screws, nuts, spacers, cement, 
wire, solder. 







Parts List 


Part 




No. Reqdc 


Bl 




1 


Ml 




1 


U2 




1 


U4 




1 


SI 




1 


TH 




1 


100 


ft. 





1 a, 



- 31 - 



FRONT VIEW 



Meter 



Case 




Reel to 
hold cable 



Probe cable 



Toggle Switch 



Construction 



With the exception of the thermistor probe, construction 
is simple and is left mostly to the readers ingenuity. Any District 
Radio Technician could provide help for anyone unacquainted with 
the electrical diagrams or components. The probe itself should be 
built last as some testing will be necessary before the thermistor 
is waterproofed. 



1 b. 



- 32 - 



BACK VIEW 



Reel 



Probe 
Cable 









UT"-Tfr ; fc 



Meter 



-U-4 



Switch 



Mercury Cell 



2. 



SCHEMATIC 



Thermistor 
4< 



v klJ 



Probe Cable 



Mercury >* 
Cell 



Off 
-Hi? 



U-4 
.— > 



x 



SI 



+ v/ 
VWV\/ N 

U-2 



i MI 

/0-l \ 
^ Mac J 



- 33 - 



Probe 



HANDLE THERMISTOR CAREFULLY* When removing the therm- 
mistor from its shipping box do so with extreme care. It is VERY 
small and can easily be lost. It is suggested that it be placed 
on a clean piece of white paper, A magnifying glass will be very 
helpful in handling the thermistor. When soldering the thermistor 
to the cable end use a small pair of tweezers as a heat sink to 
prevent the soldering heat from damaging the thermistor. 




Wood Dowel 



Thermistor 



Copper or Brass 
Pipe 




Cement 



1/16" Drill 8 holes 



Copper or Bronze Screen soldered 
on end of pipe 



i i 
l i 
i t 



iife Single 

Knot 

y Soldered 

Joints 

l l~"l/3 M 



Many methods of constructing the probe are possible so 
the one illustrated above may be used simply as a guide. A piece 
of copper or brass pipe, screening, and a wooden dowel are used. 
Slide the dowel onto the cable, tie a single knot in the cable, 
then solder the thermistor to the end of the cable. To ensure that 
it is soldered properly switch on the unit. The meter needle should 
indicate about ? of full scale. Blow lightly on the thermistor 
and the reading should change. 

Coat about 3" of the cable with model cement. Pull the 
cable wet with cement into the wooden dowel until the knot rests 
firmly against the end of the dowel. Allow to dry. 



- 34 - 

Gently shape and position the thermistor and wires as 
in diagram 3 « Do not allow any bare wires to remain touching. 

Dip the thermistor and connections into the cement and 
allow to dry. Apply additional coats of cement and allow to dry. 

Rub wax on the dowel and gently press into the screened 
case until the thermistor tip is slightly below the upper four holes 
in the case. 

Now, if you wish, the front cover of the meter may be 
removed and the dial re-numbered so that the meter scale reads 
from to 100. Also, "degrees F" may be written on a strip of 
adhesive tape and placed over the MA label on the meter face. 

Calibration 

The unit may be calibrated by immersing the probe and 
an accurate thermometer in water. Do this for a range of temper- 
atures from 32°F to 90°F. Adjusting control U-2 will correct 
readings at 32°F. These controls will interact so it may be 
necessary to change them alternately until correct readings are 
obtained. The meter should indicate correct water temperature 
within ♦ 1°F from 40of to BOOF. 

Conclusion 

For work on shallow lakes no additional weight is needed 
on the probe, but for deeper lakes some lead weight may have to be 
added. 

The cable was marked with paint at 5 foot intervals to 
indicate water depth. 

Reference 

The following reference will give complete and detailed 
instructions for building this thermometer. 

Pugh, James E. Electronic Fishing Thermometer. 
Science and Mechanics, August, I960, pp. 154-157. 



- 35 - 

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE QUALITY OF ANGLING IN 
LAKE MINDEMOYA, MANITOULIN ISLAND, 1961 

by 
F. Ao Zimmerman 
Conservation Officer 

Abstract 

In an effort to evaluate the quality of angling in 
Lake Mindemoya and particularly with regard to the 
production of yellow pickerel, an extensive creel 
census was carried out in the summer of 1961 . Dur- 
ing an 18 week period starting June 19, 1961, 1,518 
anglers were recorded to have fished 5,316 hours or 
3l hours each. The average fisherman caught 2,3 fish. 
Six species were represented in the total catch: 211 
lake whitefish, 61 northern pike, 912 yellow perch, 
2,010 yellow pickerel, 108 smallmouth bass and 220 
rock bass. The pickerel averaged about one pound 
while the average weight of the jumbo yellow perch 
produced in these waters was slightly less than one 
pound. 



Sudbury District's fish and wildlife staff has the admin- 
istrative responsibilities for a total area of 11,960 square miles 
(202 townships, plus numerous North Channel, Lake Huron and Georgian 
Bay islands) . Thirty-six per cent of this area is water and re- 
presents potential problems in the management of our district's 
renewable aquatic resources. 

Before an attempt can be made to manipulate the fish 
populations of a given body of water it is necessary to evaluate 
the existing fishery, qualitatively and quantitatively. Subjective 
appraisals by the local residents of the fishing qualities of the 
lake in question can often be misleading. Several species may be 
present in the lake, but the fishery may be maintained by only one 
or two of these. This sort of misrepresentation led the author to 
carry out a relatively intensive creel census of a lake that was 
reported to be deteriorating with regard to the production of 
yellow pickerel or walleye ( Stizcr.tedion vitreum ) . 

Lake Mindemoya situated in Billings and Carnarvon 
Townships, Manitoulin Island, covers an area of approximately 17.2 
square miles. Typically a shallow, warm water lake it shows chemi- 
cally a surface pH of 7.6, a total alkalinity of 142 and a total 
dissolved solids of 240. 

Found in an area of high residental angler density and 
within easy access for tourists, Lake Mindemoya is exposed to a 
relatively strong fishing pressure. As a walleye lake it is con- 
sidered one of the districts best, but its fame is not derived 
from this species but from the jumbo yellow perch produced in its 
waters. The catch limit for perch in Lake Mindemoya is unique 
for the province at ten fish per day. 



- 36 - 

The Catch 

A total of 3,522 fish of six species were recorded caught 
over the census period of IS weeks starting June 19, 1961. 211 
lake whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ) ; 61 northern pike ( Esox 
lucius) ; 912 yellow perch ( Perca flavescens ) ; 2,010 walleye or 
yellow pickerel; 108 smallmouth bass ( Micropteus dolomieu ) and 
220 rock bass ( Ambloplites rupestris ) made up the catcho Ninety- 
five per cent of the yellow perch were cuaght in the last four weeks, 
while sixty-four per cent of the walleyes were taken in the first six 
weeks of the census period. The walleye averaged about one pound 
in weight, with a range of J to 8i pounds , The average weight of 
the yellow perch was slightly less than that of the walleye. 

Table 1 presents the temporal distribution of the catch 
by species with season and interval totals. 

Angling Pressure, Effort and Success 

A total of 1,518 anglers, fishing 5,316 hours were checked 
during the census period. Three and one half hours were spent fish- 
ing on the average, by the fisherman censused and an average of 2„3 
fish per angler was taken during the census period. 

While 1,518 anglers were checked, this figure represents 
only a small portion of the total number of anglers using the lake's 
facilities during the eighteen weeks. At the peak of the season it 
was not uncommon to see 40 - 50 boats on the lake with 75 - 100 
sportsmen fishing. It is the author's opinion that the angler sample, 
with the exception of the week of June 19, is a fair estimate of 
the temporal distribution of angling pressure. Following this, it 
is to be noted that 36 per cent of the anglers were on the lake 
during the weeks beginning June 26, July 3 and July 10. Another 
10 per cent of the total pressure was recorded during Thanksgiving 
week - October 2. This then suggests that while the creel census 
was carried out over an eighteen week period almost 50 per cent 
of the angling pressure was confined to a four week period. Dur- 
ing this four week period 1,982 fish of all species or 56 per cent 
of the total catch were taken. 

Table 2 provides a tabular consideration of the angling 
pressures and success provided by the data gathered during the 
eighteen week period. 

To assess the availability of the different species it 
was necessary to interview the anglers regarding the specificity of 
their angling. The majority of those interviewed were non-selective 
and indicated they fished for whatever was biting. This suggests 
that the data collected here could be interpreted both for individual 
species and for total fishu 

Table 3 and Figure 1 have been constructed to show the 
changes in the availability of all species, of yellow perch and 
walleye. Considering all species first it will be noted that the 
angling success steadily decreased from the beginning of the census 
period through to the week of September 18, when it improved and 
reached its peak in the final week. The walleye angling success 
closely paralleled this curve, but with less amplitude. In the 



- 37 - 

case of the yellow perch the apparent availability, based on our 
catch statistics, appears to have been very low until the week of 
September 25 when a sudden upswing in the catch success data was 
noted. This upward trend continued until the census was completed. 

Summary and Conclusion 

Six species, totaling 3*522 fish, were taken by the cen- 
sused fishermen during an eighteen week period, 95 V Qr cent of the 
yellow perch were caught in the last four weeks of the census period, 
while 64 per cent of the walleyes were taken in the first six weeks* 

The average weight of the walleyes was approximately one 
pound while the yellow perch averaged slightly less than that. 

1,51$ anglers were recorded to have fished 5,316 hours or 
three and one half hours per angler. The average angler take was 
2.3 fish. 

Approximately 50 per cent of the angling pressure was 
recorded during a four week period <, 56 per cent of the total catch 
was harvested during this four week period. 

The shallow U curve of Figure 1 describes the catch success 
of the Mindemoya anglers. The walleye availability throughout the 
season closely describes the catch per unit effort curve of all 
species censused with the exception of the sharp rise in the fall 
success* This sudden and almost spectacular change in availability 
is attributed to the sudden change in the habits of the yellow perch. 
After a very low contribution to the overall summer fishery this 
species suddenly became the dominant game fish of Lake Mindemoya. 

Olson (195$) working in Minnesota found a comparable situ- 
ation in the availability of walleye during the 1955, 1956 and 1957 
angling season. The general trend was from a relatively high catch 
per unit effort in mid-May to a low in mid-July and finally to a 
seasonal high in late September. Other workers from Minnesota have 
directly attributed this seasonal change to changes in the availa- 
bility of the species' food and indirectly to seasonal fluctuations 
in temperature. With the walleye, a carnivorous species, an abun- 
dance of young fish during the June to August period serves as its 
main food. It appears then that the greatest availability to the 
angler of the Mindemoya walleye is in periods when food is scarce. 

This probably holds true as well for the yellow perch 
which is predominantly a feeder of plankton, insect larvae and 
small fishes. The difference in the catch success during the early 
parts of the census period may perhaps be due to the fact that 
Mindemoya is a good producer of the former two food items of perch. 
With a large abundance of plankton and insect larvae the necessity 
Of this species to pursue minnows (one of the main live baits used 
in Lake Mindemoya) would be low. However, in September when the 
perch catch began to climb these food items would be in a decline. 

Maloney and Johnson (1957) while working in two Minnesota 
lakes which showed good population of walleye and yellow perch found 



- 38 - 

that an association of these two species in a lake was most desirable. 
Good perch years were usually good walleye years in such lakes. It 
appears that this may be true for Lake Mindemoya and it is hoped 
that future work on this lake will bear this out* 

With regards to the other species present, it is my 
opinion that the lake whitefish is the only species which could 
benefit the fishery by being exploited to a greater extent. Per- 
haps the practice of baiting for this species during the winter 
months would lead to a greater harvest. Pike and smallmouth bass 
appear to be present in only insignificant numbers. 

Acknowledgment . 

I would like to express my thanks to Mr. Ross Archer of 
Lake Mindemoya who assisted me in the collection of the creel 
census data. 

References 

Maloney, J. E. and F. H. Johnson 1957« Life histories and inter- 
relationships of walleye and yellow perch, especially during their 
first summer in two Minnesota lakes. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. Vol, 
85:191-202. 

Olson, D. E. 1958. Statistics of a walleye sport fishery in a 
Minnesota lake. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. Vol. 8:52-72. 









- 39 - 










TABLE 1 - TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF CATCH DATA LAKE MINDEMOYA, 


1961 
















Week Lake 


Northern 


Yellow 




S,M. 


Rock 


Total 


of: 


Whitefish 


Pike 


Perch 


Walleye 


Bass 


Bass 


Fish 


June 19 


2 






22 






24 


26 


17 


8 


3 


224 




2 


254 


July 3 


32 


8 


13 


363 


2 


83 


501 


10 


16 


7 


5 


358 




10 


396 


17 


31 




5 


149 


1 




186 


24 


49 


4 


14 


172 


2 


7 


248 


31 




3 




U 


3 


20 


114 


Aug. 7 


13 


8 


5 


11 


1 


12 


116 


14 






1 


86 


33 


44 


164 


21 








54 






54 


28 








45 




19 


64 


Sept. 4 


1 




4 


42 


2 


1 


50 


11 




2 


1 


6 






9 


18 


10 


9 


6 


23 






48 


25 


22 


3 


111 


31 


2 


1 


170 


Oct. 2 


3 


5 


573 


178 


56 


16 


831 


9 


6 


2 


^5 


59 


6 


5 


163 


16 




1 


95 


33. 






129 


TOTAL: 


211 


61 


912 


2,010 


108 


220 


3,522 


Per cent of 


1.7 


25.9 


57ol 


3.1 


6.3 




Total Catch 5»9 





















- 40 - 
TABLE 2 - TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANGLING PRESSURE AND SUCCE SS 

LAKE MINDEMOYA. 1961 



Week 








Angling 


Total 


Fish/ 


Fish/ J 


of: 




Anglers 


Hours 


Effort 


Fish 


Rod-Hour 


Angler 


June 


19 


5 


21 


4.2 


24 


1.14 


4c80 




26 


107 


371 


3-5 


254 


c68 


2.37 


July 


3 


241 


936 


3.9 


501 


c54 


2.08 




10 


200 


752 


3.8 


396 


.53 


1.98 




17 


118 


400 


3.4 


186 


.47 


1.58 




24 


133 


441 


3.3 


248 


.56 


1.86 




31 


77 


2/+6 


3.2 


114 


.46 


1.48 


Aug. 


7 


103 


300 


2.9 


116 


.39 


1.13 




14 


98 


301 


3.1 


164 


>55 


1.67 




21 


47 


151 


3.2 


54 


.36 


1.15 




23 


40 


144 


3.6 


64 


• 44 


1.60 


Sept. 


4 


33 


189 


5.7 


50 


.26 


1.52 




11 


12 


55 


4.6 


9 


.16 


.75 




18 


31 


106 


3.4 


48 


.45 


1.55 




25 


43 


157 


3.3 


170 


I0O8 


3.54 


Oct. 


2 


154 


556 


3.6 


831 


1.49 


5.40 




9 


49 


162 


3.3 


163 


1.01 


3.33 




16 


22 


72 


3.3 


129 


1.79 


5.86 


TOTAL 


o 

• 


1,518 


5,316 


3»5 


3,522 


.66 


2.32 



- 41 - 
TABLE 3 - TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE AVAILABILITY OF THE CATCH 

LAKE MINDEMOYA. 1961 
(Fish per Rod-hour) 



Week 




All 


Yellow 




of: 




Species 


Perch 


Walleve 


June 


19 


1.14 




1.05 




26 


.68 


.01 


.60 


July 


3 


.54 


.01 


.39 




10 


.53 


.01 


.48 




17 


.47 


.01 


.37 




24 


.56 


.03 


.39 




31 


.46 




.36 


Aug. 


7 


.39 


.02 


.26 




14 


.55 




.29 




21 


.36 




.36 




28 


• 44 




.31 


Sept, 


4 


.26 


.02 


.22 




11 


.16 


.02 


.11 




18 


.45 


.06 


.22 




25 


1-08 


.71 


.20 


Octe 


2 


1.49 


1.03 


.32 




9 


1.01 


.52 


.36 




16 


1.79 


1.32 


.46 




Aug. 
ANGLING PERIODS 



Sept. 



- 43 - 

WINTER CREEL CENSUS 
PERRY LAKE - SWASTIKA DISTRICT 
1961 

by 
Vc B 8 Collins 
District Biologist 

Abstract 

Creel census data were collected during March and 
April of 1961. Fishing success for lake trout was 
poor as 3$»$ hours were required to land a fish. 
The trout averaged 1.7 lbs. in weight, and the total 
harvest was estimated at 52.9 lbs. or .2 lbs. per 
surface acre of water. The winter fishery has con- 
tinued to decline, and recommendations for further 
study of the problem are given. 



Introduction 

Ice fishing for lake trout in Perry Lake, Michaud Township, 
has been under investigation in recent years. Creel census data 
were collected in 195$, and during March and April, I960. N. D. 
Patrick (I960) observed that fishing had declined both in quantity 
and quality. In I960, it required 24»9 hours of fishing, on the 
average, to land one trout which averaged just over two pounds in 
weight, 

A fairly intensive creel census was made again in 1961. 
This was facilitated by the fact that the open season for lake 
trout in Perry Lake is of shorter duration (opens March 1st) than 
for most other District waters. 

The objectives of the study were: (a) to assess fish- 
ing pressure; (b) measure angling success (quantity and quality); 



(cj assess the possible effect of the winter fishery on the lake 
trout fishery as a whole. 

Methods 

During March and April, the lake was visited on 34 out 
of 61 days, including most week-ends when anglers were present in 
the greatest numbers. A schedule of work was set up so that cen- 
suses were made on representative days throughout the period to 
facilitate the extrapolation of data to cover the vhole period. 

The Matheson Fish and Game Protective Association was 
requested to fish the lake heavily to ascertain the effect on the 
creel. They participated admirably on one day, March 12th, but 
because of the low creel that day, it is no wonder that their enthu- 
siasm and interest fell off. 



- 44 - 



Observations 



The observed fishing pressure, harvest, and the estimated 
total creel for the months of March and April, 1961, are summarized 
in Table I. An estimated 229 anglers fished a total of 1207.5 hours 
to land 31«1 trout. A Matheson Fish and Game Protective Association 
participation day, held on March 12th, showed an attendance of 72 
anglers fishing 367 man-hours to land six trout. 

Aside from this date, fishing pressure was only moder- 
ately heavy during March, and was light during April, with angling 
confined to week-ends. 

The fishing time required to land a trout was 52.2 hours in 
March and 19*0 hours in April, with an average of 3^.8 hours for 
the two-month period. The estimate for March may be biased because 
of the considerable effort expended on March 12th. 

The fish caught were small with the average weight for 
19 specimens being 1.7 lbs. The estimated total harvest in pounds, 
therefore, was 52.9 lbs., or an average of .2 lbs. per acre for the 
269»5 acre lake. 

Minnows were the only bait used by the fishermen. 

Conclusion s 

(1) It is apparent that fishing success has continued on its 
downward trend. (1961-33.8 hrs./fish; 1960-24.9 hrs./fish) . 

(2) The bulk of the catch consists of small fish. According to 
C A. Elsey»s 1951 data, (Patrick, I960), most would belong 
to age-class VII. 

(3) The current rate of exploitation of the fishery is low, but 
its true significance is not known because the number of 
fish harvested during the remainder of the open season is 
unknown. 

Discussion 

The basic problem is that too few, and only small lake trout, 
are being caught in the winter fishery. This suggests the possi- 
bility that the lake has been over-fished, as Patrick (I960) concluded. 
If this is the case, and the creel reflects the actual abundance of 
fish in the lake, it means that the trout are being completely har- 
vested as soon as they enter the fishery and few older or larger 
fish are present in the lake. 

A second possibility is that for reasons unknown, only 
small fish are susceptible to winter fishing, and that the decline 
in fishery has resulted from one or more weak year-classes. The 
situation may, therefore, be only temporary. 



- 45 - 

Past management practices may have a bearing on the 
problem. Winter fishing was relatively good in 195$ (Patrick, 
I960) . The lake had received plantings of yearling lake trout 
both in 1955 (2100) and 1956 (10,800), but none since. It is 
possible that these fish may have contributed to the creel in 
subsequent years, and that the decline in the fishery is co- 
incident with their loss. In addition, annual plantings of 
speckled trout have been made since 1956. Although we have no 
accurate information about the speckled trout fishery, general 
impressions are that it is satisfactory. Perhaps the apparent 
decline in lake trout is the result of competition with speckled 
trout. It is difficult to conceive what form this competition might 
take, whether it be for space or perhaps for food when the lake trout 
are fry or fingerlings. On the other hand, speckled trout might be 
used as food by older lake trout during the summer stagnation per- 
iod since the only forage fish present appear to be perch and suckers 

The need for a thorough ecological study of the lake is 
indicated. The form which such a study should take is outlined 
below, and include with considerable elaboration, those made by 
Patrick (I960) • The implementation of some of the recommendations 
will doubtlessly be hampered for want of man power* A particularly 
thorny problem is collection o± creel census data over the summer, 
which is essential to the 5 : ligation. 

Recommendatio ns 

(1) Continue inter sive winter creel census in 1962, including 
the collection of the following data: lengths, weights, 
stomach contents and scale samples. 

(2) Creel censuses should be made over the entire open season 
with the collection of complete data. Speckled trout should 
also be included in the census. 

(3) The age-class structure of the lake trout population should 
be determined by test-netting. This could best be done in 
the fall with impounding gear when the incidence of spawn- 
ing in the lake could also be verified. 

(4) The planting of hatchery lake trout stock should be made 
in 1962 only. These fish should be marked and their sub- 
sequent contribution :o the fishery noted. 

(5) Speckled trout yearlings should be planted only in every 
third year, commencing in 1964. This should provide for 

a complete turn-over in the speckled trout population every 
three years. If other factors remain constant, a three 
year cycle in the abundance of lake trout should emerge if 
the speckled trout population has any significant influence 
on the lake trout fishery. 



- 46 - 

(6) The possibility of the introduction of ciscoes as a forage 
fish for lake trout should be considered* 

(7) The present arrangement of declaring the lake a sanctuary 
and closed to fishing during January and February should 

be continued until 1970, unless otherwise indicated by subse- 
quent events. 

Acknowledgments 

We wish to thank the following persons for their co- 
operation in the study: A. A. Peever, W. A. Humphrey, V. L. Wilson, 
W, H. Charlton. We also wish to thank D. G. Waldriff and R. G. 
Boothby for their critical review of the manuscript. 

Reference 

Patrick, N. D. - Matheson Fisheries Management Project #1, 

Perry Lake Study, Preliminary Report, June, 
I960. (Manuscript) 8 pp. 



- 47 - 

TABLE I 
SUMMARY OF FISHING EFFORT AND CATCH OF LAKE TROUT 
FROM PERRY LAKE, SWASTIKA DISTRICT 

IN MARCH AND APRIL, 1961 





' ■ l 

DAY 


I T o. 
DAYS 


No. 
DAYS 
CHECKED 


No. 
MEN 


No. 
HOURS 


No. 
FISH 


ESTIMATED 


MONTH 


M§N 


No. 
HOURS 


FISfi 


MARCH 


Sun. 


4 


4 


* 
109 


586 


9 


109 


586 


9 


Mono 


4 


1 


2 


8 


1 


8 


32 


4 


Tues. 


4 











** 
(6) 


(19) 


(1.6) 


Wed. 


5 


5 


4 


14 


3 


4 


14 


3 


Thurs. 


5 


2 


9 


27 





23 


68 





Fri. 


5 


2 




















Sat. 


4 


4 


28 


151 


1 


28 


151 


1 


TOTALS 


31 


18 


152 


796 


14 


178 


970 


18,6 


APRIL 


Sun. 


5 


4 


25 


102 


4 


31 


127.4 


5 


Mon. 


4 


2 




















Tues. 


4 











** 
(0) 


(0) 


(0) 


Wed. 


4 


4 




















Thurs. 


4 


1 




















Fri. 


4 


1 




















Sat. 


5 


4 


16 


s^ 


6 


20 


110.0 


7.5 


TOTALS 


30 


16 


41 


190 


10 


51 


237.5 


12.5 


GRAND TOTALS 


61 


34 


199 


1005 


24 


229 


1207.5 


31.1 



* - Includes date of Matheson Fish and Game 
Protective Association participation, 

** - Estimate based on average for week days 



- 43 - 

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON FISH BEHAVIOUR AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL 
RELATIONSHIPS OF FISH IN SELECTED SUDBURY DISTRICT LAKES BY 
THE USE OF SELF -CONTAIN ED UN D ERWATER BREATHING APPARATUS 

by 
D. R. Hughson and J M. Sheppard 



Abstra ct 

This report summarizes the observations, made on 
several species of fish, while using Scuba equipment. 
Differences observed in underwater illumination (viz, 
light penetration) and the authors 9 anthropomorphic 
interpretations of the action and colours of arti- 
ficial fish lures as they are drawn through the water 
by sportsmen are also given. 



Introduction 

It occurred to the authors that, with the use of Scuba, 
lake investigations might be facilitated and some of the previously 
unknown features of fish behaviour and habitat selection studied. 
With these basic aims in mind we attempted to investigate some of 
the problems previously encountered in our fish and wildlife work 
but at that time were not prepared to answer. 

Methods, equipment used and waters investigated 

In the beginning, due to our relative inexperience and our 
equipment limitations, we had to make up for quality with quantity. 
Much of the early work (and some of the work we do now) was carried 
out on a trial and error basis* When a new technique was devised, 
by accident or intent, we repeated the work and improved on our 
records. 

Working in an entirely new environment we found ourselves 
pressed to remember, record and interpret our observations. 
However, after two months of innovation we developed a system of 
underwater co-operation that resulted in improved methods and a 
high degree of safety. Every attempt was made to arrange our work 
so that we dove together and carried out our investigations as a 
team, but when special occasions presented themselves and we found 
ourselves unable to do so the individual always located a second 
man in a boat for assistance, if necessary „ 

While we had occasion to observe more than one species 
of fish in a single dive or a single location, we have broken this 
report down into sections dealing with individual species. When 
multiple observations were made such a record is made under what 
we consider to be the primary species dealt with. For example, 
rock bass observations are included with smallmouth bass observations. 

Local sportsmen assisted us on certain phases of the work, 
particularly during our observations concerning the reaction of 
fish to artificial lures. 



- 49 - 

Our equipment at the beginning consisted of a Scott Air 
Pack, which proved to be unsafe for the type of work we desired 
to do. At the present time we are using an Aqua Lung with 72 cu. 
ft. tanks, a Calypso regulator, neoprene wet suits, weight belts, 
snorkels, fins, gloves, masks and a tire tube, with line and 
anchor, used as a rest and safety float. The waters investigated 
by the authors in 1961 were Kukagami Lake, Penage Lake, North 
Channel of the French River, Main French River, Nameless Lake 
Manitoulin Island., Georgian Bay, the North Channel, Trout Lake 
(Sudbury District) , and Nameless Lake in Trill township. 

Physical and Environme ntal C onsiderations 

During the seven months that we carried on our diving in 
1961, depths of slightly over 100 feet were investigated. Most 
of our work, however, was confined to the upper 50 feet. In rivers 
we worked in currents which we estimated to be in excess of 10 miles 
per hour. These were investigated with the greatest degree of 
caution as weights totalling more than 25 pounds had to be worn 
to stabilize our movements. 

Temperature seldom limited our effectiveness. With a 
combination of wet and ciry suits we were able to operate under the 
ice for extended periods without extreme discomfort. Water 
temperatures above 55°F were the most desirable range, but as we 
have indicated before the lower temperatures provided very little 
discomfort and only slightly impeded our efficiency. 

Light and light penetration were an important considera- 
tion. The period between the middle of May and mid-September would 
appear to be the best for underwater vision as the suns rays are 
at their best angle in relation to the surface for maximum light 
penetration and minimum distortion. Likewise, bright days were 
better than dull ones. 

The colour of the water also greatly affected underwater 
observations c The darker waters of the French River, for example, 
restricted visibility when compared to the clear water of Lake 
Huron or Nameless Lake. We found that we were using much larger 
quantities of air in the dark waters due to the necessity of our 
reducing the distance between cruise lines. 

Yellow Pickerel ( Stizostedion vitr eum) 

The yellow pickerel during anytime we had contact with 
the species showed little fear of the observers and only when we 
made a sudden movement would :.t exhibit any pronounced escape 
reactions. It could be approached to within a distance of from four 
to six feet before it would dart off, turn to face the source of 
escape stimulus and wait until we approached within the limit of 
flight. 

Particular attention was given to a school of pickerel 
located late in June in the North Channel of the French River. 
Although the school had no tagged fish in it we feel quite certain 
that the fish we observed for the 65 days (June 30 to September 2) 



- $0 - 

remained intact as a single school during the entire period <, 
Fifteen trips were made to the bay where the fish were located 
and at no time during the period did they move more than 150 feet 
from our original sighting of them„ 

About 45 pickerel ranging in size from 3/4 pounds to 
4^ pounds made up the school o They maintained themselves at a 
level of about two feet from the bottom throughout the season, grad- 
ually moving into deep water from the shallows of four feet to the 
deeper water of eighteen feet„ The diameter limit of the school 
was about 20 feet throughout the observation period „ It is our 
opinion that the migration of the fish from the shallow water into 
the deeper water was a thermally induced movement The fish appear- 
ed to have a preferred temperature stratum which they sought and 
followed as the waters warmed with the progression of the season. 
As they moved into deep water they kept themselves at a level 
that kept them within reach of the moderate bottom cover of 
coontail ( Cer a tophyllum demersum ) and green algae. 

Anglers were informed of the schools 9 presence and although 
on several evenings as many as seven boats fished right over the 
school, only one fish of about two pounds was taken. After a few 
nights the fishermen became discouraged and discontinued their 
attempts to catch fish from this scnoolo The inability of anglers 
to catch pickerel at this time of the year was not general for the 
area. Approximately one mile downstream in a portion of the river 
about the same depth as the bay, but with a faster current, some 
pickerel were caught e 

The bay where the pickerel were observed also supported 
a population of common shiner (No tropis cornutus ) , spottail shiner 
( Notropis hud son? ns) and lake chub ( Couesius plumbeus ) » These 
species were never seen mingling with the school of pickerelo On 
the bottom of the bay that was a sand-silt mixture a few crayfish 
and snails were evident . 

Smallmo u th Bass ( Micropterus dolomieui) and Pumpkinseed (L epomis 

g ibbosus ) 

Both these species were taken by the authors angling with 
two feet of line mi a worm baited hook while submerged „ These 
fish were taken under a floating deck and showed almost no fear of 
the swimmers 

Rock Bass (Amblppl.' Btri s) 

A school of rock bass was observed while two fishermen 
using worms for bait fished for smallmouth bass* The fish as a 
group moved towards the bait but at a very slow speed until they 
were approximately six feet from it, At this point one fish broke 
from the school and struck at the baited hook. This created 
considerable excitement among the fish and as a group they darted 
back and forth around the hocked fish which regurgitated part of 
two minnows and some larvae which the other fish quickly ate. 



- 51 - 

Northern Pike ( Esox lucius) 

This species was usually found singly and never with more 
than two in a group. They appeared to be more wary than any of 
the previously mentioned species (pickerel, sunfish, smallmouth 
bass and rock bass.) Pike were invariably found in areas near 
dense weed beds which may have been used as cover for seeking out 
food species o Attempts to catch pike in a manner similar to that 
used for smallmouth bass and sunfish proved unsuccessful. This 
species showed a far larger range of flight. 

Lake Trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ) 

Due to a contemplated closure of Kukagami Lake to winter 
fishing most of our observations on this species were limited to 
this lake. Kukagami is a typical oligotrophic lake with many 
deep holes and shoals. Large areas of the lake were examined dur- 
ing the summer months, with the shoals being given particular 
attention during the fall. Observations were made in waters up to 
100 feet deep where the visibility was remarkably good. The 
bottom of the lake at 100 feet is black sand-silt (when dry — grey) 
which is at least a full arms length in depth. The bottom when 
contacted appeared to tremble and shift as a mass of jelly. Vege- 
tation at this depth appeared to be limited to scattered masses 
of algae. In some places large boulders could be seen with a 
layer of silt covering the top of them. 

In the rock shoal areas signs of disappointed anglers 
were present. Many hundreds of yards of monel line running in 
every direction formed a maze of wire. Several lures were found. 

No lake trout were seen during the summer which, perhaps 
would indicate that the lake trout were in schools. In Kukagami 
lake, trout are reported to spawn on or about October 24. Three 
checks were made on the rock shoals (October 20, 31> and November 
9) . Two trout were seen on October 20, none on the other two 
visits. Both showed little fear and the authors approached 
within eight feet of them. The shoals examined were reported by 
local guides and camp operators to have been good spawning grounds 
ten years ago when large numbers of the fish could be seen on the 
shoals during the day. 

No indication of any spawning activity was observed during 
any of our visits, with the exception of the two trout previously 
mentioned. There was no visible evidence of these fish making 
spawning preparations. More frequent checks would seem to be in 
order and if our 1962 fall work load permits, we anticipate making 
further investigations of this lake. 

Speckled Trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis ) 

Most of our observations on this species were made in an 
unnamed lake in Trill township. Spring work in this lake suggested 
that the fish moved along the shoreline. Schools were located at 
several different places at different times in this small lake. 
With the progression of the season and the warming of the lake's 



- 52 - 

waters, a school of fish ranging from 6" to 22" (in size) could 
always be located at a cold spring which entered the lake near a 
beaver house. The trout stayed in among the sticks of the lodge. 
We were able to approach within five feet of these fish before 
they dispersed only to regroup again in the cold spring water. 

Twenty to thirty suckers ( Catostomus commersoni ) were 
found swimming among the speckled trout. The suckers ranged in 
size from 5 to 15 inches,, 

In October, three pairs of speckled trout were observed 
clearing areas approximately 3" in diameter in the vicinity of the 
spring. No eggs were seen in the redds at this time. 

General Observations 

On some occasions several species were found in a group. 
For example, below the Penage dam in a slight current 15 pickerel, 
5 lake trout, 3 smallmouth bass and 1 largemouth bass were found 
grouped together. Three of this group were carrying small plugs 
and spoons hooked in their jaws. The fish did not appear to be 
inconvenienced in any way by the presences of the lures in their 
mouths. 

Two dead fish were found. Both showed no apparent cause 
of death. A lake trout was found at the bottom of Kukagami Lake 
in 60 feet of water and in Nameless Lake Manitoulin Island a li 
pound rainbow was found dead in 25 feet of water. 

Visibility in Lake Penage was very good. At 40 feet we 
could distinguish such things as free living nematodes which were 
only 2.5 inches long. With the assitance of two local sport fisher- 
men we attempted to interpret the appearance of artificial lures as 
a fish might see them, Most of the wooden diving baits on a fast 
retrieve appeared as small dark objects followed by a small row of 
bubbles. It was only on the slower retrieves that their shapes 
could be determined and their best action shown* In the darker 
waters where light penetration was poor, yellow, gold and silver 
were the colours most readily distinguished. 

It was observed that the lures could be dragged very 
close to the fish without any apparent response being evoked from 
the fish. When the bait came within three feet of the fish one of 
three things might happen — 

1. It would ignore the lure and might swim away. 

2. It would strike at the lure. 

3. It would follow the lure without striking at it. 

Summary and Conclusions 

Of the total acreage of most lakes, only a small percentage 
of the lake area is populated at any one time and the fish appear 
to have a clumped distribution rather than a uniform distribution 
within a lake-, 



- 53 - 

Most fish species (of those watched by us) tend to school 
and are seldom seen singly — the northern pike being the exception. 
Schools of fish if not actively feeding, show little or no interest 
in artificial or live bait. It is possible to find more than one 
species of fish in one group moving about as a unit. 

The 1961 work using self-contained underwater breathing 
apparatus has given us some idea of what can be done in using this 
technique to study lakes and their fish population. It is antici- 
pated that in the future, in order to provide more complete data, 
a single species or a single lake will be given particular attention. 

Recommendations 

Scuba diving could well be incorporated in the district 
lake survey program. It provides a quick method of determining 
the type and geography of the lake's bottom, the presence of springs, 
etcetera and the kind of fish species present. 

Many other facets of fish behaviour, survival, reproduc- 
tion, etcetera, may be considered by this technique. It should be 
pointed out to anyone contemplating the use of Scuba equipment that 
a thorough understanding of the equipment is necessary. Scuba 
diving should not be considered a weekend sport if any degree of 
efficiency is to be expected.